Words of welcome of the executive editor of the issue
We present to your attention thematic issue of the journal “Nations of Eurasia: history, culture, interaction”.
Significant changes have taken place in the traditional culture of the nations of the 20th and early 21st centuries. Apparently, these processes are associated with the general trends of post-industrial society, justified by the transitions of socialism from Soviet to post-Soviet. Analysis of the impact of these trends is relevant to assess the development opportunities of society. First of all, it is important for understanding what is happening with the ethnic culture, which is the basis of the identity of the people.
Of course, the change of eras has affected the cause of the transformations of traditional culture, for example, some elements of culture adapt to these changes, others die off. Each country and each ethnic group that undergoes this process is characterized by its own characteristics, its own adaptation mechanisms appear that need to be understood. Fixation, analysis of transformations is an important issue worthy of separate research attention.
This issue of the magazine "The World of the Big Altai" presents the results of studies of historians, demographers, ethnographers, folklorists and linguists from the cities of Almaty, Abakan, Barnaul, Gorno-Altaysk, St. Petersburg, Surgut.
Articles by A. Konunov “The current state of ritual folklore of the Altai people (based on field work in 2017)” and Tadysheva N.O. “Bride-kelin: ritual codex of traditional wedding rituals of the Sayan-Altai turks” (Kelin’s daughter-in-law: the ritual code of the traditional wedding rituals of the Sayan-Altai Turks) is devoted to the Altai ritual complex in the modern period, which is a combination of a number of elements: firstly, this is a traditional rite.
Secondly, these are the components of socialist ritualism, included during the 20th century. And, thirdly, new ideas and practices that arose during intensive spiritual searches in the post-Soviet era, combined, in particular, with foreign cultural borrowings.
Konunov A.A. described the cycle of calendar rites in detail and comes to the conclusion that the rites perform a magical protective function, keeping them out from totemic master spirits, from the elements of nature, disease, and mora. In all these wishes, the cross-cutting theme is the glorification of Altai, appeasement of the host spirits of the sacred mountains and large rivers, a request for help addressed to the Altai Master and various spirits of the mountains and rivers in order to obtain the desired benefits.
Tadysheva N.O. notes that in traditional culture there are strong ideas about the category of “friend or foe” and about belief in the negative impact of “foe”. Successive ceremonies are held in the wedding ritual, which accompany the transition of future spouses from one state to another, from the “alien” world to their “own”. Of interest are the revealed common elements of the wedding ceremony among the Altai, Tuvans and Khakasses, based on the binary “friend or foe” opposition to the daughter-in-law.
Material culture is highlighted in the work of Ignatyeva O.P. “Some aspects of modern Altai horse breeding”, where issues of the development of Altai horse breeding are considered. Attention is paid to the transformations that occurred in the nomadic culture in connection with historical conditions. Based on unpublished sources (author's field materials, archival materials), an analysis is made of the state of horse breeding and the impact of changes on horse breeding tradition.
In terms of contrastive-comparative and typological study of the traditional Khakass dwellings with the material of other peoples of the Sayano-Altai, the study of A.A. Kirzhinakov is of great interest. Comparative studies have shown that “traditional fishing dwellings among the Turkic peoples of Sayano-Altai” preserved typologically similar types of temporary fishing dwellings in the material culture: Tuvans - Chavyt / Chavytchadyr, among Khakasses - Odag / Otakh, among Altaians - japash / Chadyr, among Shors - Odag, among the Kumandy - adag / odag, among the Tubalars - adag / odag, formed as a result of the common cultural and historical development and the genetic origins of these peoples.
Basing on a wide range of sources, I.N. Muytueva in the article “Characterization of the mythological image of wild animals in the oral folk art of the Altai people” revealed the problem of the place and role of wild animals in the oral folk art of the Altai people, tried to restore meaning and identify the most ancient elements of the traditional worldview of the Altai people in worship of animals.
The features of the formation of dual nouns in the Altai language are analyzed In the work of Chaychina E.V. The main hypothesis of the study is that paired words are a special type of nominations for designating open "temporary" classes of objects that are necessary in different communication situations that are most effective in terms of saving lexical resources. Paired words, as signs for expressing a concept, represent an analysis of the properties of objects and phenomena called the components of a paired word, by highlighting some common features, at the same time dissecting objects according to their special properties, and classify them according to their similarities and differences.
In the submission articles of A.A. Galieva “Inner Horde in the light of comparing empire management practices” the issues of the management system that existed in the Bukeev khanate are considered. The author describes the process of introducing some forms of governance previously used in other ethno-political entities that existed previously in the territory of the Russian Empire, building new forms of relations between the ruling elite of the Kazakhs of this khanate and the tsarist authorities. All these forms and methods of management differed from traditional ones, therefore they can be understood as “invented traditions”; by N.A. Filippova in “Linguistic, Cultural and Religious Identity of Indigenous Peoples: New Regional Support Practices in Siberia” studied the practice of ensuring linguistic, cultural and religious identity in the subjects of the Russian Federation, geographically located in the Asian part of Russia (namely, Siberia), since in this region the largest number of such peoples live and regional policy in this matter is most diverse. The author highlighted the national features of the constitutionalization of the legal status of indigenous peoples in Russia, proved their historical conditionality; systematized the main challenges faced by indigenous peoples in the context of the formation of industrial and post-industrial (information) culture, analyzed the regional policy of preserving the languages of indigenous peoples; A.A. Eremina, A.M. Astrelin "Management of demographic development in the post-Soviet space" analyzes the process of managing demographic development in the countries of the post-Soviet space. Concepts such as demographic development and state demographic policy are examined, the main directions of state policy in the field of population reproduction (fertility, mortality) and migration processes from the time of the collapse of the USSR to the present are analyzed. The main attention is paid to the study of the regulatory framework for the implementation of demographic policies, mechanisms and principles for its implementation.
Sincerely yours, editor-in-chief N.O. Tadysheva
(on the material of the fieldwork in 2017)
World of Great Altay 2019 Т.5.№3. 323-336
Konunov Arkadiy Alekseevich
Candidate of Philology Sciences, Senior Researcher, state-financed scientific institution «Scientific research institute of Altaic studies, named after Surazakov, S.S.», Russian Federation, Altai Republic, Gorno-Altaisk. E-mail:
Abstract: This work is devoted to the study of the modern state of the ritual folklore of one of the Turkic peoples of Southern Siberia, the Altaians, representing various local ethnic groups. The formation of the vector of ideas about the sacred among the Altaians began in the 90s. Twentieth century. When people again began to venerate sacred objects, partially forgotten during the Soviet era - passes, springs with healing water, to make offerings to the hosts, to pray for murgul during calendar holidays and as a result, sacral rites became open, “legal” and publicly approved. At present, the fixation of a modern ritual material and the preservation of unique verbal patterns and rituals that play a significant role in the life of an ethnic group by creating a folklore collection, then publishing and studying it are caused by the requirements of the time. In addition, in the context of the rapid loss of traditional culture and the natural withdrawal from the lives of experts in the ritual sphere, it is necessary as soon as possible and more fully to fix and study what has survived and reached our days. The components of all the rituals held during calendar holidays for different Altai ethnic groups differ mainly at the level of the text of wishes and some (though also important) external elements of the rite, which is associated with the difference in local traditions.The deep semantics, the direction of the rites and their main stages are identical, which makes it possible to assign all the fixed rites to one common Altai tradition
Key words: worldview; tradition; custom; rite; ritual; calendar rite; holiday.
World of Great Altay 2019 Т.5.№3. 337-350
Tadysheva Natalya Olegovna
сandidate of Historical Sciences, Deputy Director of BNU RA “Scientific and Research Institute of Altaian Studies” n.a. S.S. Surazakov, Russian Federation, Altai Republic, Gorno-Altaisk. E-mail:
Abstract. The article reveals the common elements of the traditional wedding rites of the Altaians, Khakas, Tuvinians, based on the binary opposition of “friend or foe” in relation to the bride-kelin. In the course of the wedding ceremony, the former social and kinship relations are reconstructed, first of all, in respect of the bride. As a result of the appropriate rituals, there is a "separation" of the girl from her family of parents, from the former home of the cult and her gradual inclusion into the new environment. Initially, the bride-kelin appears as a "stranger", "alien." Her “dangerous” influence against her new relatives is strong and measures of magical and religious protection are taken against her. There preserved an idea of the magical meaning of the word, when pronounced by some “alien”, in this case, by an alien kelin, can be dangerous for the husband and his relatives and can cause them harm.
The same moments of the wedding ceremony of the Altaians, Tuvinians and Khakas were revealed, which were influenced by the binary opposition «friend or foe» in relation to the daughter-in-law; in particular, closing the bride’s face with a wedding curtain, handkerchief, limiting contact with her before the rites of passage – she was accompanied the groom’s nephews, Askak-Kadai, braiding bride’s hair, giving a bowl with milk, the custom of avoiding the older relatives of the bride, whom the daughter-in law is following. There is also drawn the attention to the stable elements, which are evidenced by the oral folklore, in the article are examples from the heroic epos of the Altaians, Tuvinians and Khakas.
On the one hand, the wedding rituals in present conditions suffer transformations in the direction of simplification in urban settings; on the other hand, the holding of traditional weddings in museums and club institutions of Tuva and Khakassia indicates the popularization of traditional wedding ceremonies, where the attempt is made to save traditional culture. However, in these conditions, the considered materials evidence about saving of ideas about the daughter-in-law in the traditional picture of the world of the Turks of Sayan-Altai.
Keywords: wedding ritual; binary opposition “kin”-“alien”; sacredness; transition rites; variability; resistance; daughter-in-law ‘kelin’; Altaians; Tuvinians; Khakas.
World of Great Altay 2019. Т.5.№3. 351-372
Ignatyeva Olga Petrovna
Russian museum of ethnography, researcher, curator of the illustrative fund. Russia. St.Petersburg.
Abstract: XX century brought collosal adjustments to the lifestyle of the Altaians (the term Altaians here is used collectively and unites Altai-kiji, Telengits, Kumandins, Chelkans and Tubalars).The nomadic groups completely transited to settled life, the system of property relations was changed several times, the inhabitants of the region were involved in government programs for the development of agriculture, and mandatory standardized education was introduced.Тhe beginning of the 21st century introduced new communication opportunities, new materials and new directions for the development of the economy, while at the same time the level of employment, medical and veterinary services decreased. The Altai breeders turned out to be left to themselves and focused on those types of economic activity that they consider the most economically viable and fit into the framework of traditional cultural ideas about legitimate ways of managing.
The result was a partial return to traditional farming methods, and an assessment of the property level of the family, taking into account the livestock of farm animals, in particular horses. Continuous development and a peculiar renaissance of the horse-breeding tradition, with the almost complete economic inexpediency of horse-breeding as such, require an indispensable fixation and study of researchers. This article provides a brief overview of the material aspects of modern Altai horse breeding. Methods for keeping and breeding horses are considered, data on the types and existence of horse equipment are presented, and modern samples are compared with material objects known from museum collections. Also provides brief information on common types of equestrian sports.
Keywords: Altai; modern material culture; horse breeding; horse equipment; mobility; national sport; masculine world; national identity.
World of Great Altay Т.5.№3. 373-389
Kyrzhinakov Artur Alekseevich
candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of General History, Institute of History and Law, Khakass State University named after N. F Katanov, Russia, Republic of Khakassia, Abakan. Е-mail
Abstract: the Article is devoted to the historical reconstruction of traditional fishing housing of the turkic peoples of Sayano-Altai. The design and dynamics at different stages of development of these residential buildings are considered and analyzed. They were used during hunting and harvesting of pine nuts. According to the design features, their types are distinguished: single-pitched; gable with an open smoke cleft; gable with a narrow smoke cleft; gable closed; frame-pillar with a truncated pyramid-shaped roof. In the XVIII-XIX centuries. they had the most wide existence and use in economic activities in the twentieth century gradually undergo a transformation, changing its structure and the substitution of the frame structures on the hut carcass type, the existence of which is in the taiga of the Sayan-Altai mountains lasts until the present day. In the twenty-first century harvest of taiga gifts it is possible to observe temporary residential buildings of frame type in the field of fisheries, but in rare cases. A comparative analysis of these dwellings of the indigenous population of Sayano-Altai is carried out, as well as a comprehensive ethnographic description, including socionormative elements. Genesis of residential buildings of fishermen is connected with the earliest stage of development of cultures of turks peoples of Sayano-Altai. Chronologically, it is not possible to establish the exact time of their appearance, but on the basis of the available historical and ethnographic material, their modification is traced. As a result, new archival, field ethnographic materials of the author and folklore texts were introduced into scientific circulation.
Keywords: Sayano-Altai; fishing housing; khakas peoples; altai peoples; tuvin peoples; shor peoples; kumandy peoples; tubular peoples; hunting; gathering pine nuts.
in the oral folk arts of altaians
Muytueva Irina Nikolaevna
candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, senior Researcher of Research Institute of Altaistika named
after S.S. Surazakov, Russian Federation, Altai Republic, Gorno-Altaisk. Е-mail:
Annotation: The study of images of the animal world helps to study the religious beliefs, prospects and trends in the development of the spiritual culture of the people. The functionality of images is connected, first of all, with the division of the world into two beginnings, although it is impossible to unequivocally talk about this, since many of the images have a dual position in the dualistic picture of the world. The dualistic cosmogonic myth of the creation of the world by two gods is the basis of the entire universe of Altaians and plays such a fundamental role that it can be defined as a narrative that structures not only the traditional religious and mythological picture, but also the entire spiritual culture of society. The dualism of the cosmogonic myth in the traditional picture of the world is present everywhere, in the creation and structure of the earth, man, animal world, flora, respectively, ceremonies and customs associated with it are subject to it. For completeness of coverage of the studied topic, isolated information was collected from various sources about the remnants of the animal cult of the Altai people. We are far from the fact that in this study we illuminated the mythological images of wild animals in all its manifestations in the Altaian myth-ritual tradition, but this is the beginning. Separate motifs of animal worship in the oral folklore of the Altaians could have been formed under the influence of fear of some animal or the result of the deification of certain animals. But today, it is almost impossible to single out one or another reason for worshiping individual animals, since we fix their already established cult images. A comprehensive study of the mythological images of the animal world in Altai folkloristics remains relevant.
Keywords: image; fauna; dualism; oral folk art; totem; bear; wolf; hare, woodchuck.
World of Great Altay 2019. Т.5. №.3. 406-418
Chaychina Еvgeniya Valerevna
BNU RA «The Scientific-Research Institute of Altaistic named after S.S. Surazakov», Russian Federation, Republic of Altai, 649000, Gorno-Altaisk, 6 Sotsialisticheskaya St., research Associate in the research group of language. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: In all Turkic languages as in Altai widespread paired nouns, and they found none, only in spoken language and folklore, but also in various genres of fiction. Frequency of use of pairs of names in writing and speaking is linked to their semantic capacity and ability to express great stylistic, emotionally-expressive burden.
This article is devoted to the Altai language noun name pair. Paired words are inherently twofold. The components of many paired words are lexically ambiguous. They always refer to the same part of speech and even in many cases are processed the same morphological characteristics.
In Turkic languages on the subject are the works by E.I. Ubrjatova, T.M. Garipova, F.A. Ganieva, A.T. Kaidarova, S.N. Muratov, G.N. Semenova, N.M. Ondar, I.M. Tarakanova, G.A. Dyrheeva, D.Sh. Haranutova, E.A. Bardamova etc.. In the Altai linguistics paired words have so far not been the object of special study. Some of the problems are reflected in articles by N.N. Tydykova, N.R. Bajzhanova, A.V. Belyakova, E.V. Chaychina, etc. In this article we considered pairs of names and ways of their formation. Their more frequent types are revealed.
Illustrative material is selected by continuous sampling from existing dictionaries of the Altai language and also from fiction of Altai classics.
Keywords: Turkic languages; Altai language; grammar; noun; word formation; compound words; semantics; paired words.
The Inner Horde in the light of Comparison of Empire Management Practices
World of Great Altay 2019. Т.5. №3. 419-430
Galiev Anuar Abitaevich
Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor at the Ch.Valikhanov Institute of History and Ethnology,
of Kazakhstan, Almaty. E-mail:
Abstract. The paper discusses the management system that existed in the Bukeyevsky Khanate, which was formed in the early XIX century between the Volga and the Urals. The initiative to create it came from the Royal officials. There, some forms of government were introduced that were previously applied in other ethno-political formations that existed previously on the territory of the Russian Empire, and a new form of relationship was built between the ruling elite of the Kazakhs of this Khanate and the Royal authorities. All these forms and methods of management differed from traditional ones, therefore they can be understood as “invented traditions”.
The Bukeyev Horde, de facto, was located in the European part of the Empire, that is, in the immediate vicinity of the most economically and culturally developed areas of the country, and its Khans, also had begun to introduce various elements in management that were not previously known.
The creation of such political entities was known in the practice of governing various Empires, including those created by Madrid in the Americas. As Benedict Anderson showed, this practice led to the emergence of new states independent of Spain. In the case of the Bukeyev horde, this did not happen for various reasons of a geographical, social and economic nature. The Horde that had existed for about half a century as a testing ground for working out the forms of relations between Russia and its new subjects, was eliminated since Russia strengthened its position in this region, and abolished Khan's power, relying on Chingisism, and approved its new institutions there.
Key words: Bukeyev Horde; Russian Empire; invented traditions; imaginary community
new regional practices in Siberia
Filippova Natalia Alekseevna
Doctor of Law, candidate of Political Science, associate Professor, Head of the Department of
State and Municipal Law of Surgut state University. Russian Federation, 628416, Surgut, Lenin Ave. 1. E-mail:
Annotation. The right to preserve ethnic identity is universal, but its maintenance and implementation has significant features in relation to aboriginal ethnic groups. The preservation of the language, culture and traditional beliefs of such peoples requires the formation of special national social and legal institutions. The solution to this problem is more difficult In federal States than in unitary States, since it requires a division of powers between the levels of state power.
The subject of the study was the practice of ensuring linguistic, cultural and religious identity in the subjects of the Russian Federation, geographically located in the Asian part of Russia (namely, in Siberia), since this region is home to the largest number of such peoples and regional policy in this matter is the most diverse.
The author defines the national features of the constitutionalization of the legal status of indigenous peoples in Russia, proves their historical conditionality; the author systematizes the main challenges faced by indigenous peoples in the formation of industrial and post-industrial (information) culture, analyzes the regional practice of preserving the languages of indigenous peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East in terms of information communication and dialect dissociation of such languages, shows that the main factor in the preservation of original culture is the traditional way of life, which is transformed in the conditions of industrial development of the territories of traditional economic activity of these peoples; the directions of its institutional and legal protection are named. The most pronounced and often irreversible are the assimilation processes in the religious sphere, less pronounced are the assimilation processes in education, communication and everyday life.
Taking into account the latest trends in the development of Federal and regional legislation, regional institutions for the protection of the rights of indigenous minorities of the North, Siberia and the Far East are systematized, and regional models of commissioners for the rights of indigenous minorities in the constituent entity of the Russian Federation, which is a unique regional legal institution, are described.
Keywords. Indigenous minorities; indigenous peoples; aboriginals; identity; authorized representatives of indigenous peoples; the Commissioner for the rights of indigenous minorities in the subject of the Russian Federation.
World of Great Altay 2019. Т.5. №3.446-457
Eremin Alexey Alexeevich
Candidate of Geographic Sciences, Associate Professor of the Chair of Economic Geography and Cartography, Altai State University, Russia, 656049, Barnaul, Lenina, 61; Associate Professor of the Department of State and Municipal Administration, Altai branch of Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Russia, Barnaul. E-mail: email@example.com
Astrelin Alexey Mikhailovich
student, Altai state University. Russia, Barnaul. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: This work is devoted to the analysis of the management of demographic development in post-Soviet countries. Concepts such as demographic development and state demographic policy are considered, the main directions of state policy in the field of population reproduction (fertility, mortality) and migration processes in the period from the collapse of the USSR to the present day are analyzed. The main attention is paid to the study of the regulatory framework for the implementation of demographic policies, mechanisms and principles for its implementation.
First of all, the authors dwell on the consideration of modern demographic policy in Russia. The leading role of the Concept of demographic policy of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2025 is indicated as the basis for managing the reproduction of the country's population. The analysis showed that in general in Russia the demographic situation pays great attention to the state both at the federal and regional levels. Further, the authors describe the features of the implementation of demographic programs in the post-Soviet countries of Eastern Europe (Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine). Then, the documents regulating the demographic development in the countries of the Transcaucasus (Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia) are analyzed.
It is noted that this area of public administration is expressed rather weakly, often the main document in the field of family and demographic policy is the family code, and if any demographic programs are developed, they rarely become projects that can really affect the country's demographic life. A special place is given to the analysis of the management of demographic processes in the post-Soviet countries of Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan). The review concludes with a brief review of demographic documents in the Baltic countries (Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia). In the end, the authors conclude that there is a need for closer cooperation of all countries of the post-Soviet space in the field of demography at the interstate level, both in the form of bilateral interactions and within the framework of existing integration associations.
Keywords: demographic development; demographic policy; concept of demographic policy; family policy; demographic program; demographic strategy; national strategy; post-Soviet space.
World of Great Altay 2019. Т.5. №3. 458-469
Kozybaeva Mahabbat Malikovna
scientific secretary of Ch.Ch. Valikhanov Institute of History and Ethnology, Republic of Kazakhstan, Almaty, Shevchenko, 28, Doctor PhD,
Mamytova Saule Nasenovna
professor of S. Toraighyrov Pavlodar State University, Republic of Kazakhstan, Pavlodar, Lomov, 64, Doctor of Historical Sciences,
Аnnotation. The scientific article is de voted to the study of the history of ethnocultural interaction, as well as the specifics of ethno-demographic processes in North and North-East Kazakhstan in the 18th - first half of the 20th centuries. in the context of studying the Kazakhstan model of national unity. In this article, the authors attempted to present the originality and evolution of ethnocultural interaction in a historical retrospective, the emphasis is on the interaction between the autochthonous Kazakh population and ethnic groups resettled here at different times. In particular, the authors analyze the processes of ethnocultural interaction of the displaced population with the indigenous Kazakh ethnic group, study the processes of ethno-demographic changes in the region in pre-revolutionary times, and then during the Soviet period during the Soviet power modernization, manifested in collectivization and industrialization, which influenced urbanization in the pre-war period, the consequences of forced deportation of peoples are investigated. The authors investigate the processes of interethnic interaction during the period of deportation and Stalin’s repressions, when only Poles, Germans, Kurds, Armenians, Koreans, Assyrians, Kalmyks, Chechens, Crimean Tatars, Balkars, and others were expelled to Pavlodar Irtysh. a significant decrease in the proportion of Kazakhs in a regional society. The authors come to the conclusion that the content of ethnocultural interaction in the Soviet period was determined by the general ideology about the need to erase national faces, form a single community – the Soviet people. This greatly limited the ability to preserve ethnic identity. On the other hand, it was at this time that the foundations of the multi-ethnicity of the people of Kazakhstan were being laid, which became an active zone for the formation of interethnic tolerance, social harmony, characteristic of modern Kazakhstani society.
Keyword. Kazakhstan’s model of national unity; ethnocultural interactions; North and North-East Kazakhstan; Cossack military colonization; peasant settlers; demographic processes; collectivization; industrialization; deportation; “special settlers”.