The formation of horse equipment of the early nomads of Central Asia

 

Bokovenko Nicholay Anatoliyevich

Сandidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Employer of FSO Institute of history of material culture of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Russian Federation, 191186, Saint-Petersburg, Dvortsovaya Naberezhnaya, 18. E-mail: nibo25@yandex.ru.

 

Abstract. The frontier of 2nd-1st millennium BC was an important milestone for formation of optimum system of economy – nomadic cattle breeding at which a flexible way of the seasonal pasture of the cattle with horizontal and vertical nomadism, generally horses and small cattle, allowed to graze it even in the winter. This convenient system of economy of many steppe people has existed practically without special changes up to now and was the progressive phenomenon. During this period change of material culture at cattle breeding cultures and emergence of numerous nomadic cultures of skif and saks type in Central Asia the early formation stages of which according to archaeological data are fixed in IX century BC, perhaps earlier.

The reasons of their emergence are caused by not only internal development, but also development of the horse under riding, creation of optimum types of bridle, etc., but, probably, certain climatic changes during this period, by moistening of the steppe that created an opportunity to move with livestock for long distances. Besides, in connection with significant progress in horse breeding and production from bronze more reliable bridles by large sets, in the company of early nomads (or the cultures of Scythian type) the rider (centaur) comes to the first place.

On material of the analysis of extensive archaeological cultures of early nomads, the author considers the process of formation of horse equipment in the territory of Central Asia.

Keywords: horse equipment; Saks era; Central Asia; riding cultures; domestication of horse.

DOI:10.31551/2410-2725-2018-4-1-5-42

 

Орталық Азиядағы ерте көшпелілердің ат әбзелдерінің қалыптасуы

 

Боковенко Николай Анатольевич

тарих ғылымдарының кандидаты, доцент, Ресей ғылым академиясының Материалдық мәдениет тарихы институты Федералдық мемлекеттік бюджеттік мекемесінің қызметкері. Ресей Федерациясы, Санкт-Петербург қ, 191186, Дворцовая набережная, 18. E-mail: nibo25@yandex.ru.

 

Аңдатпа. Б.э. дейінгі 2-1 мыңжылдық көшпелі мал шаруашылығының елге оңтайлы жүйесін қа-лыптастыру үшін маңызды кезең болды – негізінен жылқы және ұсақ малы үшін тіпті қыста да шаруашылықтың икемді тәсілі маусымдық мал жайылымы көлденең және тік көшіп – қону үшін мүмкіндік берді. Бұл ыңғайлы шаруашылық жүйесі көптеген дала халықтарының тәжірибесінде іс жүзінде ерекше өзгерістерсіз осы күнге дейін жеткен прогрессивті құбылыс. Дәл осы кезеңде мал шаруашылығы мәдениетінде, материалдық мәдениетте орын алған өзгерістер тіркеледі және археологиялық деректер негізінде сонау б.э.д IX ғасырда тіркелген Орталық Азияда скиф-сақ үлгісіндегі көптеген көшпенді мәдениеттердің пайда болуы белең алады.

Олардың пайда болу себептері, негізінен тек қана ішкі дамуымен ғана байланыстырылмайды, сонымен қатар атты мініп жүруге ыңғайлап үйрету, оңтайлы үлгідегі жүгенді жасап шығару және т. б., шамасы осы кезеңде белгілі бір климаттық өзгерістер, дала ылғалдануы малмен үлкен қашықтыққа көшіп-қонуға мүмкіндік туғызып отырды.

Сонымен қатар, жылқы бағудағы елеулі өзгерістер прогресі, оның ішінде қоладан неғұрлым сенімді ауыздық – жүгендер топтамасын дайындаумен, қоғамда бірінші орынға көшпенділердің (немесе скиф типті мәдениетте) салт атты түрі (кентавр) шығады.

Автор ауқымды археологиялық мәдениеттер материалдарын талдау арқылы Орталық Азия аумағында жылқы әбзелдерінің қалыптасу процесін қарастырады.

Кілт сөздер: ат әбзелдері; сақ дәуірі; Орталық Азия; салт аттылар мәдениеті; жылқылар домес-тикациясы.

 

Формирование конского снаряжения ранних кочевников Центральной Азии

 

Боковенко Николай Анатольевич

кандидат исторических наук, доцент, сотрудник ФГБ учреждение науки Институт истории материальной культуры Российской академии наук. Российская Федерация, г.Санкт-Петербург, 191186, Дворцовая набережная, 18. E-mail: nibo25@yandex.ru.

 

Аннотация. Рубеж 2-1 тысячелетия до н.э. явился важной вехой для формирования оптимальной системы хозяйства – кочевого скотоводства, при котором гибкий способ сезонного выпаса скота с горизонтальным и вертикальным кочеванием, в основном коней и мелкого рогатого скота, позволяла пасти его даже зимой. Эта удобная система хозяйства у многих степных народов просуществовала практически без особых изменений до наших дней и была прогрессивным явлением. Именно в этот период фиксируется изменение материальной культуры у скотоводческих культур и появление многочисленных кочевых культур скифо-сакского типа в Центральной Азии, ранние этапы формирования которых наиболее четко по археологическим данным фиксируются уже в IX в. до н.э., возможно, и раньше.

Причины их возникновения, обусловлены не только внутренним развитием, освоением коня под верховую езду, созданием оптимальных типов узды и т.д., но, видимо, и определенными климатическими изменениями в этот период, увлажнением степи, что создавало возможность передвигаться со скотом на большие расстояния. Кроме того, в связи со значительным прогрессом в коневодстве и изготовлением из бронзы более надежных уздечных наборов большими сериями, на первое место в обществе ранних кочевников (или культурах скифского типа) выходит всадник (кентавр).

На материале анализа обширного материала археологических культур ранних кочевников автор рассматривает процесс формирования конского снаряжения на территории Центральной Азии.

Ключевые слова: конское снаряжение; сакская эпоха; Центральная Азия; всаднические культуры; доместикация лошади.

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© 2016. С. Аманжолов атыңдағы ШҚМУ

© 2016. S.Amanzholov named EKSU

© 2016. ВКГУ имени С.Аманжолова

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