Tamgo-shaped signs from catacombs of Aryss culture of the South Kazakhstan of 3rd century to – 4th century AD

Podushkin Alexandr Nikolayevich

Doctor of History, Professor of South Kazakhstan state pedagogical institute. Republic of Kazakhstan, 160017, Shymkent, 13 Baitursynov str. E-mail: p_a_n_alex@mail.ru

 

Abstract. The publication is devoted to the complex of graphological, semantic, trace evidence studying of tamgo-shaped signs on the ceramics and other artifacts from catacomb burials of Aryss culture of South Kazkhstan for the purpose of clarification of their semantic loading and use. At the same time the group of signs which are graphically and functionally treated as the Kangyuy-Sarmatian and syun signs-tamga received from archaeological full-fledged, informatively saturated funeral complexes underwent the multifold analysis.

Feature of tamga-signs from catacombs of Aryss culture is the fact that the ceramics with signs had deeply ritual mission in funeral ceremonialism connected by means of drawing tamga with ethnic, social and property components. Signs tamga in this case showed the corresponding accessory of the dead (breeding, patrimonial, clan), the relation of the last to property (personal, tribal, it is possible - state) and to a social rank in hierarchy of nomad as a part of the state Kangyuy.

Keywords: Aryss culture; tamgo-shaped signs; South Kazakhstan.

DOI:10.31551/2410-2725-2018-4-1-60-101

III ғ. – б.з.д. IV ғ. Оңтүстік Қазақстандағы Арыс мәдениетінің катакомбаларынан табылған тамға тәрізді белгілер

 

Подушкин Александр Николаевич

тарих ғылымдарының докторы,Оңтүстік Қазақстан мемлекеттік педагогикалық институтының профессоры.Қазақстан Республикасы, 160017, Шымкент қ, Байтұрсынов көшесі, 13, E-mail: p_a_n_alex@mail.ru

 

Аңдатпа. Жарияланым Оңтүстік Қазақстандағы арыс мәдениетінің катакомб қабаттарындағы керамика және басқа артефакттардағы таңбалық пішінді белгілерді кешенді графикалық, семан-тикалық және трасологиялық мәндік жүктемесін және пайдаланылуын түсіндіру мақсатында зерттеуге арналған. Сонымен қатар, графикалық және функционалдық түрде қаңлы-сармат және сүнну таңбаларының белгілері деп танылған кешенді белгілер тобы археологиялық құнды, ақпа-раттылықпен қаныққан жерлеу кешендерінен алынып, талданды. Арыс мәдениетінің катаком-баларынан табылған таңбалардың ерекшелігі – салынған белгілері бар керамика этникалық, әлеуметтік және мүліктік компоненттердің ғұрыптық белгісі ретінде терең рәсімдік мақсатқа ие. Бұл жағдайда тамға-белгілер қаза тапқандардың (тайпаға, руға, әулетке) тиесілігі, әлеуметтік дәрежеге деген қатынасы (жеке, рулық-тайпалық және ықтимал мемлекеттік) және Қаңлы көш-пелі иерархиясында әлеуметтік меншікке қатынасын көрсетеді.

Кілт сөздер: арыс мәдениеті; Оңтүстік қазақстан; тамға; мәндік жүктеме.

 

Тамго-образные знаки из катакомб арысской культуры Южного Казахстана III в. до – IV в. н. э.

 

Подушкин Александр Николаевич

доктор исторических наук, профессор Южно-Казахстанского государственного педагогического института.Республика Казахстан, 160017, г. Шымкент, ул. Байтурсынова, 13, E-mail: p_a_n_alex@mail.ru

 

Аннотация. Публикация посвящена комплексному графологическому, семантическому, трасологическому изучению тамго-образных знаков на керамике и иных артефактах из катакомбных погребений арысской культуры Южного Казхстана с целью выяснения их смысловой нагрузки и использования. При этом всестороннему анализу подверглась группа знаков, которые графически и функционально трактуются как кангюйско-сарматские и сюннуские знаки-тамги, полученные из археологически полноценных, информативно насыщенных погребальных комплексов.

Особенностью знаков-тамг из катакомб арысской культуры является тот факт, что керамика со знаками имела глубоко ритуальное предназначение в погребальной обрядности, связанное посредством нанесения тамг с этнической, социальной и имущественной составляющими. Знаки-тамги в этом случае демонстрировали соответствующую принадлежность умерших (племенную, родовую, клановую), отношение последних к имуществу (личному, родоплеменному, возможно - государственному) и социальному рангу в иерархии номадов в составе государства Кангюй.

Ключевые слова: арысская культура; тамгообразные знаки; Южный Казахстан; погребальная обрядность.

Reference

  • Abramova 1979 – Abramova, MP 1979, K voprosu o svyazyah naseleniya Severnogo Kavkaza sarmatskogo vremeni, Sovetskaya arheologiya, №2, S.31-50. (Abramova, MP 1979, On the question of relations of the population of the North Caucasus of the Sarmatian time, Soviet archeology, №2, P.31-50). (in Rus).

  • Bogomolov 2011 – Bogomolov, GI 2011, K tipologii i znacheniyu tamgoobraznyh znakov na keramike CHacha, Materialy mezhdunarodnoj nauchnoj konferencii: «Arheologiya Kazahstana v ehpohu nezavisimosti: itogi, perspektivy», posvyashchennoj 20-letiyu nezavisimosti Respubliki Kazahstan i 20-letiyu In-stituta arheologii imeni A.H. Margulana, Tom III, Almaty, S.91-105. (Bogomolov, GI 2011, The typology and the value of the tamgha-like marks on ceramics chacha, Materials of international scientific conference "Archaeology of Kazakhstan in the era of independence: results and prospects" devoted to the 20 anniversary of independence of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the 20th anniversary of the Institute of archaeology named after A. Kh. Margulan, Tom III, Almaty, P.91-105). (in Rus).

  • Bolelov 2012 – Bolelov, SB 2012, Sredneaziatskaya keramika v pamyatnikah kochevnikov YUzhngo Priural'ya, Vliyanie ahemenidskoj kul'tury v YUzhnom Priural'e (V- III v.v. do n. eh.), Pod redakciej M.Yu. Trejstera i L.B. YAblonskogo, «TAUS», Moskva. (Bolelov, SB 2012, Central Asian ceramics in the monuments of nomads of Wingo Urals, The Influence of Achaemenid culture in the southern Urals (V - III centuries BC), edited by M.J. Treister and L.B. Yablonski, «TAUS», Moskva). (in Rus).

  • Drachuk 1975 – Drachuk, VS 1975, Sistemy znakov Severnogo Prichernomor'ya. Tamgoobraznye znaki severopontijskoj periferii antichnogo mira pervyh vekov nashej ehry, «Naukova dumka», Kiev, 224 s. (Drachuk, VS 1975, Systems of signs of the Northern black sea. Tamgha-like marks severeon Baltic periphery of the ancient world of the first centuries of our era, «Naukova dumka», Kyiv, 224 s). (in Rus).

  • Erzhigitova, Smagulov, Demidenko 2009 – Erzhigitova, AA, Smagulov, EA, Demidenko, SV 2009, K proiskhozhdeniyu odnoj CHachskoj dinastii, Izvestiya NAN RK, №1(268),S.168-173. (Erzhigitova, AA, Smagulov, EA, Demidenko, SV 2009, The origin of one dynasty of Chach, Izvestija NAS RK, №1(268),S.168-173). (in Rus).

  • Gorbenko, Kosyanenko 2011 – Gorbenko, FF, Kosyanenko, VM 2011, Nekropol' Paniardisa (Krepostnogo gorodishcha), Donskie drevnosti. Vypusk 11, Azov, 512 s. (Gorbenko, FF, Kosyanenko, VM 2011, Necropolis Paniards (Serf city), The Don of old. Issue 11, Azov, 512 s). (in Rus).

  • Litvinskij 1968 – Litvinskij, BA 1968, Kangyujsko-sarmatskij farn, Donish, Dushanbe, 119 s. (Litvinskij, BA 1968, Kangui-Sarmatian Farn, Donish, Dushanbe, 119 p). (in Rus).

  • Maksimova 1968 – Maksimova, AG 1968, Mogil'nik ZHaman-Togaj, Drevnosti CHardary, Nauka Kaz. SSR, Alma-Ata, S.174-193. (Maksimova, AG 1968, Zhaman-Togay Burial Ground, Antiquities of Chardara, Nauka Kaz. SSR, Alma-Ata, P.174-193). (in Rus).

  • Minyaev 2007 – Minyaev, SS 2007, Dyrestujskij mogil'nik, Arheologicheskie pamyatniki syunnu. Vypusk 3. Filolo-gicheskij fakul'tet SPbGU, Sankt-Peterburg, 233 s. (Minyaev, SS 2007, Dyrestuyskiy burial ground, Archaeological sites of the Hsiung-nu. Issue 3, Philological faculty of St. Petersburg state University, St. Petersburg, 233 p). (in Rus).

  • Moshkova 1989 – Moshkova, MG 1989, Srednesarmatskaya kul'tura, Arheologiya SSSR. Stepi evropejskoj chasti SSSR v skifo-sarmatskoe vremya, Moskva, 177-191. (Moshkova, MG 1989, Mid culture, Archeology of USSR. Steppes of the European part of the USSR in the Scythian-Sarmatian time, Moscow, P.177-191). (in Rus).

  • Obel'chenko 1961 – Obel'chenko, OV 1961, Lyavandakskij mogil'nik, Istoriya material'noj kul'tury Uzbekistana. Vypusk 2, AN Uzbekskoj SSR, Tashkent, S.97-176. (Obel'chenko, OV 1961, Levandoski burial ground, History of material culture of Uzbekistan, Issue 2, Academy of Sciences of the Uzbek SSR, Tashkent, P.97-176). (in Rus).

  • Podushkin 1973 – Podushkin, NP 1973, Goncharnye pechi rannezemledel'cheskih poselenij doliny Arysi (YUzhnyj Kazahstan), Arheologicheskie issledovaniya v Kazahstane, Nauka Kaz. SSR, Alma-Ata, S.183-187. (Podushkin, NP 1973, Pottery furnaces of early ice settlements of Arys valley (southern Kazakhstan), Archaeological research in Kazakhstan, Nauka Kaz. SSR, Alma-Ata, S.183-187). (in Rus).

  • Podushkin 1985 – Podushkin, AN 1985, O znakah na keramike poselenij YUzhnogo Kazahstana IV-VI v.v.. IAN Kaz. SSR. Ser. obshch. nauk. №3, S.50-56. (Podushkin, AN 1985, About the signs on the ceramics of the settlements of South Kazakhstan IV - VI cc. IAN Kaz. SSR. Ser. social. sciences. №3, P.50-56). (in Rus).

  • Podushkin 2000 – Podushkin, AN 2000, Arysskaya kul'tura YUzhnogo Kazahstana IV v. do n. eh.- VI v. n. eh., Turkestan. (Podushkin, AN 2000, The Arys culture of southern Kazakhstan of IV century BC - VI century, Turkestan). (in Rus).

  • Podushkin 2009 – Podushkin, AN 2009, Syunnu v YUzhnom Kazahstane (istoriko-arheologicheskij aspekt v ramkah issledovaniya pamyatnikov arysskoj kul'tury), Trudy Central'nogo muzeya, Tom II, Almaty, S.173-182. (Podushkin, AN 2009, Syunnu in southern Kazakhstan (historical and archaeological aspect within the framework of the study of Arys culture monuments), Proceedings of the Central Museum, Tom II, Almaty, P.173-182). (in Rus).

  • Podushkin 2010 – Podushkin, AN 2010, Sarmaty v YUzhnom Kazahstane, Drevnie kul'tury Evrazii. Materialy mezhdu-narodnoj nauchnoj konferencii, posvyashchennoj 100-letiyu A.N. Bernshtama, Sankt-Peterburg, S.207-217. (Podushkin, AN 2010, The Sarmatians in southern Kazakhstan, Ancient cultures of Eurasia. Proceedings of the international scientific conference dedicated to the 100th anniversary of An Bernshtam, Sankt-Peterburg, S.207-217). (in Rus).

  • Podushkin 2013 – Podushkin, AN 2013, Sarmatskie znaki-tamgi na keramike YUzhnogo Kazahstana, Materialy SHestoj mezhdunarodnoj Kubanskoj arheologicheskoj konferencii, Krasnodar, S.340–344. (Podushkin, AN 2013, Sarmatian Tamga-signs on the ceramics of southern Kazakhstan, Materials of the Neck-stop international Kuban archaeological conference, Krasnodar, P.340–344). (in Rus).

  • Podushkin 2015 – Podushkin, AN 2015, Syunnu v YUzhnom Kazahstane: arheologicheskij i istoricheskij konteksty, Drevnie kul'tury Severnogo Kitaya, Mongolii i Bajkal'skoj Sibiri. Materialy VI mezhdunarod-noj nauchnoj konferencii, Tom II, Huh-Hoto, S.507-514. (Podushkin, AN 2015, The Huns in southern Kazakhstan: archaeological and historical contexts, Ancient cultures of Northern China, Mongolia and Baikal Siberia. Proceedings of the VI international scientific conference, Tom II, Huh-Hoto, P.507-514). (in Rus).

  • Podushkin, Raev, Belov 2013 – Podushkin, AN, Raev, BA, Belov, MA 2013, Znaki na keramike gorodishcha Ushbastobe (YUzhnyj Kazah-stan) (po materialam issledovanij 2013 goda), III «Anfimovskie chteniya po arheologii Zapadnogo Kavkaza. Materialy mezhdunarodnoj arheologicheskoj konferencii (27-29 maya 2013 g.), Krasnodar, S.117-121. (Podushkin, AN, Raev, BA, Belov, MA 2013, Characters on ceramics of the settlement Usbstore (South Kazakhstan) (materials research 2013), III Antonovskie reading on the archaeology of the Western Caucasus. Proceedings of the international archaeological conference (May 27-29, 2013), Krasnodar, S.117-121). (in Rus).

  • Rudenko 1962 – Rudenko, SI 1962, Kul'tura hunnov i Noinulinskie kurgany, AN SSSR, Moskva–Leningrad, 205 s. (Rudenko, SI 1962, Culture of the Huns and Noinline mounds, AS USSR, Moscow–Leningrad, 205 p). (in Rus).

  • Smirnov 1975 – Smirnov, KF 1975, Sarmaty na Ileke, Nauka, Moskva, 176 s. (Smirnov, KF 1975, Sarmatians on the Ilek river, Nauka, Moscow, 176 p). (in Rus).

  • Smirnov 1989 – Smirnov, KF 1989, Savromatskaya i rannesarmatskaya kul'tury, Stepi evropejskoj chasti SSSR v skifo-sarmatskoe vremya, «Nauka», Moskva, S.165-177. (Smirnov, KF 1989, Coild and rannanmukka culture, The Steppe of the European part of the USSR in the Scythian-Sarmatian time, «Nauka», Moscow, P.165-177). (in Rus).

  • Samashev, Bazylhan, Samashev 2010 – Samashev, Z, Bazylhan, N, Samashev, S 2010, Drevnetyurkskie tamgi, AVDI, Almaty. (Samashev, Z, Bazylhan, N, Samashev, S 2010, Ancient Turkic tamgas, AVDI, Almaty). (in Rus).

  • Samashev, Grigor'ev, ZHumabekova 2005 – Samashev, Z, Grigor'ev, F, ZHumabekova, G 2005, Drevnosti Almaty, Almaty. (Samashev, Z, Grigor'ev, F, ZHumabekova, G 2005, Antiquity of Almaty, Almaty). (in Rus).

  • Samashev, Kusherbaev, Amanshaev 2007 – Samashev, Z, Kusherbaev, K, Amanshaev, E, Astaf'ev, A 2007, Sokrovishcha Ustyurta i Mankystau, Almaty. (Samashev, Z, Kusherbaev, K, Amanshaev, E, Astaf'ev, A 2007, Treasures of Usturt and Mangistau, Almaty). (in Rus).

  • Sims-Williams, Grenet 2006 – Sims-Williams, N, Grenet, F 2006, The sogdian inscriptions of Kultobe, SHYGYS, №1, S.95-111. (in Eng).

  • Sims-Williams, Grenet, Podushkin 2007 – Sims-Williams, N, Grenet, F, Podushkin, A 2007, Les plus anciens monuments de la langue sogdienne: les inscriptions de Kultobe au Kazakhstan, Academie des Inscription & Belles, Paris, P.1006 -1034. (in Eng).

  • Skripkin 1982 – Skripkin, AS 1982, Aziatskaya sarmatiya vo II-IV v.v., Sovetskaya arheologiya, №2, S.43-56. (Skripkin, AS 1982, Asian Sarmatia in the II-IV сс, Soviet archeology, №2, P.43-56). (in Rus).

  • Smagulov, YAcenko 2010 – Smagulov, EA, YAcenko, SA 2010, Znaki-nishan (tamgi) i syuzhetnye graffiti V-VIII v. v. na keramike gorodishcha Sidak na srednej Syrdar'e, Otzvuki velikogo Horezma (k 100-letiyu so dnya rozhde-niya S.P. Tolstova). Sbornik statej, Moskva, S.190-221. (Smagulov, EA, YAcenko, SA 2010, Signs-Nishan (Tamga) and story graffiti V-VIII centuries on the kerami ke settlement Sidak in middle Syrdarya, Echoes of the great Khorezm (to the 100 anniversary from the birthday S. P. Tolstov). Collected papers, Moscow, P.190-221). (in Rus).

  • Solomonik 1959 – Solomonik, EhI 1959, Sarmatskie znaki Severnogo Prichernomor'ya, Kiev. (Solomonik, EhI 1959, Sarmatian signs of the Northern Black sea coast, Kyiv). (in Rus).

  • Vajnberg, Novgorodova 1976 – Vajnberg, BI, Novgorodova, EhA 1976, Zametki o znakah i tamgah Mongolii, Istoriya i kul'tura narodov Srednej Azii, Moskva, S.69-77. (Vajnberg, BI, Novgorodova, EhA 1976, Notes on signs and tamgas of Mongolia, The History and culture of the peoples of Central Asia, Moscow, P.69-77). (in Rus).

  • Voronyatov 2012 – Voronyatov, SV 2012, O probleme poyavleniya sarmatskih tamg i antropomorfnyh izobrazhenij v arealah pozdned'yakovskoj i moshchinskoj kul'tur, Rossijskij arheologicheskij ezhegodnik. №2, Sankt-Peterburgskij gosudarstvennyj universitet, Universitetskij izdatel'skij konsorcium, Sankt-Peterburg, S.412-435. (Voronyatov, SV 2012, On the problem of Sarmatian tamgas and anthropomorphic images in the areas of Pozdnjakovskaja and moshenskoy cultures, Russian archaeological Yearbook, St. Petersburg state University, University publishing consortium, St. Petersburg, P.412-435). (in Rus).

  • Vostrov, Mukanov 1968 – Vostrov, VV, Mukanov, MS 1968, Rodoplemennoj sostav i rasselenie kazahov (konec XIX – nachalo XX v.), «NAUKA» Kaz.SSR, Alma-Ata, 256 s. (Vostrov, VV, Mukanov, MS 1968, Tribal structure and resettlement of Kazakhs (late XIX – early XX centuries), «NAUKA» Kaz.SSR, Alma-Ata, 256 s). (in Rus).

  • YAcenko 2001 – YAcenko, SA 2001, Znaki-tamgi iranoyazychnyh narodov drevnosti i rannego srednevekov'ya, «Vostochnaya literatura» RAN, Moskva. (YAcenko, SA 2001, Signs-Tamga of Iranian-speaking peoples of antiquity and the early middle ages, «Vostochnaya literatura» RAN, Moskva). (in Rus).

  • Zaseckaya 1974 – Zaseckaya, IP 1974, «Diagonal'nye» pogrebeniya Nizhnego Povolzh'ya i problema opredeleniya ih ehtnicheskoj prinadlezhnosti, Arheologicheskij sbornik. №16, Leningrad, S.104-121. (Zaseckaya, IP 1974, «Diagonal» burials of the Lower Volga region and the problem of determining their ethnicity, Archaeological collection. №16, Leningrad, P.104-121). (in Rus).

© 2016. С. Аманжолов атыңдағы ШҚМУ

© 2016. S.Amanzholov named EKSU

© 2016. ВКГУ имени С.Аманжолова

  • Facebook Social Icon
  • Twitter Social Icon
  • Google+ Social Icon
  • YouTube Social  Icon